TSCD: Book III, Chapters X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER X: THE ABUSE OF GOVERNMENT AND ITS TENDENCY TO DEGENERATE As the particular will acts constantly in opposition to the general will, the government continually exerts itself against the Sovereignty. The greater this exertion becomes, the more the constitution changes; and, as there is in […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters VII, VIII, and IX

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER VII: MIXED GOVERNMENTS Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a simple government. An isolated ruler must have subordinate magistrates; a popular government must have a head. There is therefore, in the distribution of the executive power, always a gradation from the greater to […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters IV, V, and VI

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER IV: DEMOCRACY He who makes the law knows better than any one else how it should be executed and interpreted. It seems then impossible to have a better constitution than that in which the executive and legislative powers are united; but this very fact renders […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters I, II, and III

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole Before speaking of the different forms of government, let us try to fix the exact sense of the word, which has not yet been very clearly explained. CHAPTER I: GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL I warn the reader that this chapter requires careful reading, and that I am […]

TSCD: Book II, Chapters VII, VIII, IX, and X

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER VII: THE LEGISLATOR In order to discover the rules of society best suited to nations, a superior intelligence beholding all the passions of men without experiencing any of them would be needed. This intelligence would have to be wholly unrelated to our nature, while knowing […]

TSCD: Book II, Chapters XI and XII

CHAPTER XI: THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF LEGISLATION If we ask in what precisely consists the greatest good of all, which should be the end of every system of legislation, we shall find it reduce itself to two main objects, liberty and equality—liberty, because all particular dependence means so much force taken from the body of […]

TSCD: Book II, Chapters IV, V, and VI

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER IV: THE LIMITS OF THE SOVEREIGN POWER If the State is a moral person whose life is in the union of its members, and if the most important of its cares is the care for its own preservation, it must have a universal and compelling […]

TSCD: Book II, Chapters I, II, and III

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER I: THAT SOVEREIGNTY IS INALIENABLE The first and most important deduction from the principles we have so far laid down is that the general will alone can direct the State according to the object for which it was instituted, i.e. the common good: for if the clashing […]

TSCD: Book I, Chapters VII, VIII, and IX

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER VII: THE SOVEREIGN This formula shows us that the act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the public and the individuals, and that each individual, in making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is bound in a double capacity; as a member […]

TSCD: Book I, Chapters V and VI

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER V: THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION Even if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off. There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society. […]

error: Content is protected.