TSCD: Book III, Chapters XV, XVI, XVII, and XVIII

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER XV: DEPUTIES OR REPRESENTATIVES As soon as public service ceases to be the chief business of the citizens, and they would rather serve with their money than with their persons, the State is not far from its fall. When it is necessary to march out […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER X: THE ABUSE OF GOVERNMENT AND ITS TENDENCY TO DEGENERATE As the particular will acts constantly in opposition to the general will, the government continually exerts itself against the Sovereignty. The greater this exertion becomes, the more the constitution changes; and, as there is in […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters VII, VIII, and IX

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER VII: MIXED GOVERNMENTS Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a simple government. An isolated ruler must have subordinate magistrates; a popular government must have a head. There is therefore, in the distribution of the executive power, always a gradation from the greater to […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters IV, V, and VI

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER IV: DEMOCRACY He who makes the law knows better than any one else how it should be executed and interpreted. It seems then impossible to have a better constitution than that in which the executive and legislative powers are united; but this very fact renders […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters I, II, and III

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole Before speaking of the different forms of government, let us try to fix the exact sense of the word, which has not yet been very clearly explained. CHAPTER I: GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL I warn the reader that this chapter requires careful reading, and that I am […]

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