TBM: Part 2, Chapter 4

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE BASIS OF THE KANTIAN ETHICS. With the imperative Form of Ethics, which in Chapter II. we proved to be a petitio principii, is directly connected a favourite idea of Kant’s, that may be excused, but cannot be adopted. Sometimes […]

TBM: Part 2, Chapter 3

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE ASSUMPTION OF DUTIES TOWARDS OURSELVES IN PARTICULAR. This form of the doctrine of duties was very acceptable to Kant, and in working out his position he left it untouched; for, like his predecessors, along with the duties towards others […]

TBM: Part 2, Chapter 2

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE IMPERATIVE FORM OF THE KANTIAN ETHICS. Kant’s πρῶτον ψεῡδος (first false step) lies in his conception of Ethics itself, and this is found very clearly expressed on page 62 (R., p. 54): “In a system of practical philosophy we are not […]

The Enchiridion: XXVI-LI

by Epictetus translated by Thomas W. Higginson XXVI The will of nature may be learned from things upon which we are all agreed. As when our neighbor’s boy has broken a cup, or the like, we are ready at once to say, “These are casualties that will happen”; be assured, then, that when your own […]

TBM: Part 2, Chapter 1

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: PRELIMINARY REMARKS. It is Kant’s great service to moral science that he purified it of all Eudaemonism. With the ancients, Ethics was a doctrine of Eudaemonism; with the moderns for the most part it has been a doctrine of salvation. The […]

TBM: Part 1, Chapter 2

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Introduction: GENERAL RETROSPECT. For the people morality comes through, and is founded on, theology, as the express will of God. On the other hand, we see philosophers, with few exceptions, taking special pains to entirely exclude this kind of foundation; indeed, so they may but avoid it, […]

TBM: Part 1, Chapter 1

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Introduction: THE PROBLEM. “Why do philosophers differ so widely as to the first principles of Morals, but agree respecting the conclusions and duties which they deduce from those principles?” This is the question which was set as subject for a prize essay by the Royal Society of […]

The Enchiridion: I-XXV

by Epictetus translated by Thomas W. Higginson I There are things which are within our power, and there are things which are beyond our power. Within our power are opinion, aim, desire, aversion, and, in one word, whatever affairs are our own. Beyond our power are body, property, reputation, office, and, in one word, whatever […]

Meno

by Plato translated by Benjamin Jowett PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Meno, Socrates, A Slave of Meno (Boy), Anytus. MENO: Can you tell me, Socrates, whether virtue is acquired by teaching or by practice; or if neither by teaching nor by practice, then whether it comes to man by nature, or in what other way? SOCRATES: […]

Ethics: Book 1

by Aristotle BOOK I Every art, and every science reduced to a teachable form, and in like manner every action and moral choice, aims, it is thought, at some good: for which reason a common and by no means a bad description of the Chief Good is, “that which all things aim at.” Now there […]

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