TBM: Part 2, Chapter 4

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE BASIS OF THE KANTIAN ETHICS. With the imperative Form of Ethics, which in Chapter II. we proved to be a petitio principii, is directly connected a favourite idea of Kant’s, that may be excused, but cannot be adopted. Sometimes […]

TBM: Part 2, Chapter 3

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE ASSUMPTION OF DUTIES TOWARDS OURSELVES IN PARTICULAR. This form of the doctrine of duties was very acceptable to Kant, and in working out his position he left it untouched; for, like his predecessors, along with the duties towards others […]

TBM: Part 2, Chapter 2

by Arthur Schopenhauer translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock Critique of Kant’s Basis of Ethics: ON THE IMPERATIVE FORM OF THE KANTIAN ETHICS. Kant’s πρῶτον ψεῡδος (first false step) lies in his conception of Ethics itself, and this is found very clearly expressed on page 62 (R., p. 54): “In a system of practical philosophy we are not […]

The Enchiridion: XXVI-LI

by Epictetus translated by Thomas W. Higginson XXVI The will of nature may be learned from things upon which we are all agreed. As when our neighbor’s boy has broken a cup, or the like, we are ready at once to say, “These are casualties that will happen”; be assured, then, that when your own […]

What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law?

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole On a subject proposed by the Academy of Dijon: What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law? Non in depravatis, sed in his qua bene secundum naturamse habent, considerandum est quid sit naturale. Aristotle, Politics, Bk. i, ch. 2. […]

Has the restoration of the arts and sciences had a purifying effect upon mortals?

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole Which won the prize at the Academy of Dijon in 1750, on this question proposed by the Academy: Has the restoration of the arts and sciences had a purifying effect upon mortals? Barbaras his ego sum, qui non intelligor illis.—OVID.[1] Preface The following pages contain a […]

TSCD: Book IV, Chapters VII, VIII, and IX

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER VII: THE CENSORSHIP As the law is the declaration of the general will, the censorship is the declaration of the public judgment: public opinion is the form of law which the censor administers, and, like the prince, only applies to particular cases. The censorial tribunal, […]

TSCD: Book IV, Chapters IV, V, and VI

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER IV: THE ROMAN COMITIA We are without well-certified records of the first period of Rome’s existence; it even appears very probable that most of the stories told about it are fables; indeed, generally speaking, the most instructive part of the history of peoples, that which […]

TSCD: Book IV, Chapters I, II, and III

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER I: THAT THE GENERAL WILL IS INDESTRUCTIBLE As long as several men in assembly regard themselves as a single body, they have only a single will which is concerned with their common preservation and general well-being. In this case, all the springs of the State […]

TSCD: Book III, Chapters XV, XVI, XVII, and XVIII

by Jean-Jacques Rousseau translated by George Douglas Howard Cole CHAPTER XV: DEPUTIES OR REPRESENTATIVES As soon as public service ceases to be the chief business of the citizens, and they would rather serve with their money than with their persons, the State is not far from its fall. When it is necessary to march out […]

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